England’s Apology to Alan Turing
Alan Turing is one of my all-time greatest heroes. A brilliant mathematician, he helped crack the Nazi code, playing a major role in the defeat of the Third Reich. He was one of the many scientists whose work ultimately led to the creation of the computer. He was the first real theorist of artificial intelligence, writing pioneering articles on the subject and appearing on British talk shows in the post-war period to debate the question: “can machines think?” In 1950, he proposed a simple test that could be used to gauge whether or not a machine exhibited true intelligence; today, the Turing Test is still the most widely used indicator that AI researchers and computer programmers use to determine whether or not a machine is actually intelligent or is merely following explicit programing (to date, no computer has been able to pass it).
But he was also gay. In 1952 he was convicted of “gross indecency” for having consensual gay sex, and faced with the choice of prison or a series of hormone injections intended to “cure” him. These hormones caused him to gain weight, develop breasts, and plunged him into a depression that ended in his suicide (he took a bite out of an apple he had dipped in cyanide, in honor of his favorite film, Disney’s Snow White and the Seven Dwarves… us gays are such drama queens).
Today, the British Prime Minister issued a really moving statement, apologizing for the “appalling” treatment that Turing – and thousands of other queers – endured. It made me cry. Here’s the whole thing:
2009 has been a year of deep reflection – a chance for Britain, as a nation, to commemorate the profound debts we owe to those who came before. A unique combination of anniversaries and events have stirred in us that sense of pride and gratitude which characterise the British experience. Earlier this year I stood with Presidents Sarkozy and Obama to honour the service and the sacrifice of the heroes who stormed the beaches of Normandy 65 years ago. And just last week, we marked the 70 years which have passed since the British government declared its willingness to take up arms against Fascism and declared the outbreak of World War Two. So I am both pleased and proud that, thanks to a coalition of computer scientists, historians and LGBT activists, we have this year a chance to mark and celebrate another contribution to Britain’s fight against the darkness of dictatorship; that of code-breaker Alan Turing.
Turing was a quite brilliant mathematician, most famous for his work on breaking the German Enigma codes. It is no exaggeration to say that, without his outstanding contribution, the history of World War Two could well have been very different. He truly was one of those individuals we can point to whose unique contribution helped to turn the tide of war. The debt of gratitude he is owed makes it all the more horrifying, therefore, that he was treated so inhumanely. In 1952, he was convicted of ‘gross indecency’ – in effect, tried for being gay. His sentence – and he was faced with the miserable choice of this or prison – was chemical castration by a series of injections of female hormones. He took his own life just two years later.
Thousands of people have come together to demand justice for Alan Turing and recognition of the appalling way he was treated. While Turing was dealt with under the law of the time and we can’t put the clock back, his treatment was of course utterly unfair and I am pleased to have the chance to say how deeply sorry I and we all are for what happened to him. Alan and the many thousands of other gay men who were convicted as he was convicted under homophobic laws were treated terribly. Over the years millions more lived in fear of conviction.
I am proud that those days are gone and that in the last 12 years this government has done so much to make life fairer and more equal for our LGBT community. This recognition of Alan’s status as one of Britain’s most famous victims of homophobia is another step towards equality and long overdue.
But even more than that, Alan deserves recognition for his contribution to humankind. For those of us born after 1945, into a Europe which is united, democratic and at peace, it is hard to imagine that our continent was once the theatre of mankind’s darkest hour. It is difficult to believe that in living memory, people could become so consumed by hate – by anti-Semitism, by homophobia, by xenophobia and other murderous prejudices – that the gas chambers and crematoria became a piece of the European landscape as surely as the galleries and universities and concert halls which had marked out the European civilisation for hundreds of years. It is thanks to men and women who were totally committed to fighting fascism, people like Alan Turing, that the horrors of the Holocaust and of total war are part of Europe’s history and not Europe’s present.
So on behalf of the British government, and all those who live freely thanks to Alan’s work I am very proud to say: we’re sorry, you deserved so much better.
Posted on: September 10, 2009, by : Sam J. M.
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